Travellers arriving in the UK from Poland and Turkey will now have to self-isolate for 14 days from 04:00 on Saturday.
It comes after a rise in the infection rate in both countries, with Poland reporting 25.9 coronavirus cases per 100,000 people, up from 15.6.
There will also be tougher fines for those who fail to self-isolate – of up to a maximum of £10,000.
Polish is the most common non-British nationality in the UK.
British nationals made over 2.5 million visits to popular holiday destination Turkey in 2019.
It comes as the UK reported a further 6,914 coronavirus cases and 59 deaths on Thursday.
The UK generally uses a threshold of 20 cases per 100,000 people when considering whether to add countries to the quarantine list.
It has also been announced that fines for first offence of failing to self-isolate when required will start at £1,000, before increasing to £2,000, then £4,000 and up to a maximum of £10,000 in England. The upper limit for repeat offences was previously £3,200.
Since the introduction of the travel quarantine regime in the summer, police officers have carried out more than 4,000 investigations.
More than 200 were found to be ignoring the quarantine requirement and escaped a fine because they listened to the officer on their doorstep. Overall there were just 38 penalties for breaching holiday quarantine.