Scotland’s national clinical director Jason Leitch said he was “surprised” to see Dundee United players not socially distanced during a team photo shoot.
The images, taken on 27 November, show the first-team and backroom staff in close proximity on the Tannadice pitch.
Nine United players and manager Micky Mellon are currently self isolating after being deemed close contacts of three Covid-19 positive staff members.
“We now know that some people in that photograph were positive,” Leitch said.
“So they were in their infectious period when that photograph was taken. That’s the problem, that’s a risk for them, for those around them, for their families.
“The outcome is up to the football authorities. I was, to say the least, a little surprised to see 49 people in a non-distanced club photograph. That didn’t seem to me to be an essential part of the return of Scottish football in a safe and considered way. It’s not something that fits in with the guidelines.”
United take on Livingston in the Scottish Premiership on Saturday with academy coach Thomas Courts, who was not involved in the team photo shoot, in charge.
The SPFL is unlikely to take action against the club over the photo, but it could become a matter for the Scottish FA.
“Football has been allowed back on the proviso that contact on the pitch, no contact off the pitch, is the rough message,” Leitch added on BBC Radio Scotland’s Off the Ball.
“Follow the same rules as the rest of us until you cross the white line and then you are given dispensation that the rest of us do not have, that you are allowed to have contact with other people.”
Meanwhile, Leitch is “in a very hopeful mood” now that coronavirus vaccines will be available from next week while case numbers are falling. However, he says vaccination will not impact Scottish football in the short term.
NHS Tayside was contacted by the BBC Scotland but has declined to comment.
In the wake of Dundee United’s images emerging, a video posted by the Celtic TV Twitter account has been shared on social media showing a similar photoshoot taking place at the Glasgow side’s Lennoxtown base.